Engelbrekht - Zenkina Z. V.
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
The role of energy feedstock in the world economy is of the utmost importance. Therefore, it is necessary to study its main resource potential and diversification of raw materials.
Raw hydrocarbons still dominates in the world power energy. According to estimates, they will provide for 85 % of the growth of consumption of energy during the period until 2030. The share of raw hydrocarbons in the world consumption of energy will increase up to 81 % in 2030. The share of renewable energy resources will remain at the level of 14 %, and nuclear power energy - will reduce from 7 % to 5 % [1, С. 12]. In accordance with basic scenario of IEA (International Energy Agency) during the period until 2030 the demand for primary energy sources will increase approximately by 1,7% per year (and for the whole period -60 %) and will increase from 10,3 to 16,5 bln. tons in oil equivalent (o.e.).
In terms of established oil reserves Russia holds one of the leading places in the world. The main oil deposits are situated mainly on the territory of West Siberian Oil and Gas Basin. The oils of West Siberia belong mainly to light types; the lightest oils (up to 0,8 g/cm3) with small content of paraffin and sulphur are situated in the central areas of West Siberian Oil and Gas Basin and its western part [1, С. 27].
The main resource of Tomsk region, which makes its resource potential, is hydrocarbons: oil and gas [2, С. 22-23]. In this connection, innovative centers of Tomsk are developing new technologies for oil and gas industry.
Specialists of Tomsk Polytechnic University have created a new technique of forecasting and search of oil and gas deposits on the basis of geophysical and radio-geochemi-cal methods, methods of survey of geochemical fields for forecasting, search and estimation of deposits .
New technologies, for example, of such countries as Germany, due to a shortage of oil are already now focused on the area of diversification of raw materials. A large chemical concern BASF situated on the territory of Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar, deals with problems of raw feedstock. The company is developing conversion technologies to ensure the raw cycle time without oil, which is in short supply. Natural gas, coal and renewable resources are estimated as additional raw materials for the industry. The key success factors - long-term availability of raw feedstock for the industry in the conditions of technological transformations. As for the sector "raw materials Change Business" BASF is studying the range of initial materials as an alternative of crude oil for the value chain, and this alternative includes renewable resources and natural gas. As a continuation of the second phase (period between 2009 and 2011) the investments in this project amount to more than 1 bln. Euro [4, С. 35].
New technologies must be developed so as to substitute the steam cracker, with oil availability decreasing. From natural gas, coal and other renewable energy sources - they all can be transformed into syngas (a mix of oxide of carbon and hydrogen). Technologies based on syngas is feedstock for basic chemicals, gaining more importance nowadays.
BASF is developing dehydration technologies to produce from С3 и С4 - ethylene hydrocarbons, chemical elements for production of many important products, such as: super absorbents, softening agents, polymers, tensides or solvents [5, S. 32].
Crude oil is the base for most chemical value chains today, and tomorrow, new conversion technologies will be able to solve the problem of raw materials. With rising oil prices, alternative sources of carbon are becoming more important for chemical processes. Wide application for energy (~95 %) of final oil stocks is one of price engines. The current state of the industry and economy requires further diversification of raw materials, especially oil. Consolidate chemical group BASF, even today, is transforming raw materials of the whole line of value chains into the market products .